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Medico-legal Manual

Medico-legal case  is a case of injury ailment where an attending doctor after taking history and clinical examination of the patient, thinks that some investigations by law enforcing agencies are essential so as to fix the responsibility regarding the case in accordance with the law of the land.

Registration of medico-legal case in a Hospital:

It is purely the responsibility of an attending doctor in causality or dispensary of a hospital to decide when to label a case as medico-legal. However, doctor should not act as a detective in such cases Main duty of the doctor is to observe and record things correctly.

            Request of the patient or the accompanying relative or friends etc. for not registering the case as medico legal shall not be entertained. The medical Officer has to base his decision on the nature of circumstances.

In any case registered as medico-legal in one hospital or dispensary and referred to another hospital, a fresh injury report need not be prepared, although case is labeled as medico-legal for other formalities. The referral slip be attached on the medico-legal report form.

It is important to remember that treatment of every medico-legal case takes precedence over medico-legal formalities, if the condition of the patient is serious. Following category of cases be labeled as medico-legal.

1.    Road-side accidents, factory accidents or any other unnatural mishap.

2.    Suspected or evident homicides or suicides, including attempted

3.    Suspected or evident poisoning

4.    Burn injuries due to any cause

5.    Injury cases where there is likelihood of death in near future

6.    Suspected or evident sexual offences

7.    Suspected or evident Criminal abortions

8.    Unconscious cases, where cause of unconsciousness is not clear.

9.    Cases brought dead with improper history

10. Cases referred by court or otherwise which require age certificate.

11. Cases pertaining to dowry Act, Domestic violence and violence against child

12. Cases of human rights violation

13. Cases pertaining to Elderly abuse

Note:

(i)            Above mentioned cases whether brought by police or by somebody else must be registered as medico-legal in the causality department if not registered elsewhere.

(ii)          Any case mentioned in the above list even if several days after the incident by police shall be registered as medico-legal. At this period opinion regarding the case is to be given according to the present condition of the patient.

(iii)         In case Casualty Medical Officer has not labeled a case as medico-legal, but indoor doctor thinks so, he should inform the same to the concerned hospital authorities, Duty Officer on duty and go ahead in fulfilling the formalities including making of an injury report as per his examination findings.

(iv)         Appropriate forms be filled up in different types of cases.

  1. Formats to be used

Formats to be used for medico-legal work are as enclosures

(1)  Requisition for age estimation by Police (Enclosure-1)

(2)  Consent for Medical Examination for assessment of age (Enclosure 2)

(3)  Report of Medical Examination for assessment of age in Males and Females (….Enclosure 3 & 4)

(4)  Report of Medical Examination for sexual offences in males (…Enclosure 5)

(5)  Report of Medical Examination for sexual offences in Females (Enclosure 6)

(6)  Requisition for Examination of an injured person by Police (Enclosure 7)

(7)  Medical examination report for drunkenness (…Enclosure 8)

(8)  Data to be furnished by Police to Medical officer and /or chemical examination in all cases of poisoning (..Enclosure 9)

(9)  Medico-legal report (..Enclosure 10)

(10)       Post-mortem report (..Enclosure 11)

Separate format have been suggested for males and females for age estimation as well as in sexual offences. In case of sexual offences also smears from private parts have importance and therefore, it has been mentioned in the report form so that the Medical officer take smears/swabs and preserve the same in such cases for further examination.

      Similarly, for injury cases and drunkenness, forms have been devised in such a manner that Medical Officers may have no difficulty while conducting examination, making report and giving opinion.

  1. MLC Cases Brought by Police

            The Medical Officer on duty for medico-legal work should ensure that Requisition Form is received from Investigating Officer or Station House Officer, giving brief facts of the case. This is important for the ends of justice and will help the Medical Officer in conducting examination. The police are required to furnish information as per form at Enclosure 10 in all cases of suspected poisoning.

  1. Intimation of Medico-legal cases to police

In those medico-legal cases, which are not brought by police, information regarding their being attended or admitted be given in writing t the constable posted in casualty.

  1. Preparation of medico-legal injury report

(1)  The medico-legal report must be prepared on the appropriate form by Casualty Medical Officer for all cases whether requiring admission for treatment in the Casualty Department. The injury report should be written in a neat and legible handwriting by the examining Doctor himself.

(2)  Report should be completed as early as possible after examining the person and taking life-saving measures where required.

(3)  The preliminary information like name, age, sex and address etc. should be properly filled.

(4)  Name, relation and address of the accompanying person must also be recorded before letting them go.

(5)  If accompanied by police officer, his name, rank, number and police station should be recorded.

(6)  Time of examination along with date of examination must be indicated clearly.

(7)  Two copies of medico-legal injury report should be prepared. The original copy should be handed over to the police while the carbon copy should be retained in the register for record.

(8)  All such report forms should be filled/ written by ball pen and using carbon paper, full name of the casualty Medical Officer (CMO) should be written in block letters below his signatures.Stamp of CMO of the hospital should also be affixed.

(9)  Consent for Medical examination should also be taken unless he/she is arrested on charge of committing an offence and produced before CMO for medical examination under section 53 of the Cr.P.C. If a person is below 12 years of age then consent of the guardian must be taken

(10)       In no case the injury report form should be filled by ‘intern’ o duty in Casualty Department.

(11)       In case where the nature of injury cannot be ascertained, patient must be kept under observation and admitted in appropriate ward and the same may be mentioned in the medico-legal report.

(12)       In case where the condition of the patient is so serious that he does not warrant preparation of detailed injury report in the casualty, such detailed report should be prepared in wards by the treating doctor. The Casualty Medical Officers in such cases should mention on their injury report forms the general condition of the patient and indicate that detailed examination and report is to be prepared in the ward.

(13)       Before examining the person a short history regarding the incidence should be mentioned. If patient is not I a fit condition then name and the address of the informant should be mentioned and his version of the incident be taken.

(14)       General physical examination should always be undertaken and findings like mental status, pulse BP, R.R., pupils etc. be recorded in the injury report.

(15)       Two identification marks like scars, moles or tattoo marks preferably on the exposed parts of the body should always be recorded.

(16)       While describing an injury, its type (i.e. abrasion, contusion or laceration etc.), dimension i.e. length, breadth and depth (depth should be mentioned where possible, in case of stab injuries measuring for depth is not available) and location (along with position from a bony point) must be mentioned.

(17)       Where possible opinion regarding the nature of injury (simple or grievous) should be mentioned but in case it is not possible, reasons should be given e.g. opinion reserved pending X-ray report, of the patient under observations. In such cases the opinion may be given at a later date.

(18)       IN case of fire-arm injuries, blackening, tattooing or singeing if present should be mentioned and wound of entry, wound of exit if present is also required to be mentioned.

(19)       While interpreting the weapon of offence the opinion should be given in the form of hard blunt weapon, soft blunt weapon, cutting weapon, stabbing weapon or fire-arm etc.

(20)       While mentioning the age of injuries, findings like fresh hemorrhage, clot formation, color of scab, color changes in bruise healing, findings of pus formation etc. should be taken into account.

(21)       Investigation when required (like X-ray examination in suspected fracture cases) must be undertaken and to be recorded in MLR. If referred for investigations, the concerned Department should submit the reports regarding the investigation as early as possible to the referring Medical Officer to expedite the completion of medico-legal report by the concerned Doctor who prepared the ML report. Failure to do so may prove negligence. In case is referred for opinion, the opinion is to be written on the MLC report form.

(22)       Prophylactic measures (like injection T.T) along with preliminary treatment given must be mentioned in the report.

(23)       In suspected poisoning cases, (where required and indicated) gastric lavage should be done. Give details of symptoms and probable nature of poison used.

(24)       In no case diagnosis of ‘unknown poisoning’ be made unless suspicion of poisoning is there. But its nature is not clear, a diagnosis of poisoning nature not known’ be given.

(25)       Any material (like bullets) gastric lavage fluid, weapons found on the body etc. should be mentioned in the report and handed over to the Investigating Officer under sealed cover. Where clothes are blood stain, these should be taken possession of by the Medical officer and sent to Police station in sealed cover with a mention of it in the report.

(26)       The reporting Officer must put signatures at the end of injury report along with official stamp.

(27)       Death summary to be prepared in duplicate, one copy to be issued to the Police.

  1. Custody of medico-legal Reports:

(a)  All medico-legal reports, register shall be kept in proper safe custody under the CMO till completed and then sent to record section. There should not be access to any unauthorized person to these documents and should be kept with an official deputed by the hospital so that it is not tampered with. It shall be given to authorized public officer by that official only.

(b)  In case where an opinion was kept pending subsequent opinion on the report is given at an appropriate time, after going through the earlier report. This opinion be also sent to the record section from where it will be issue to the police.

  1. Preservation of trace evidences:

a)    All clothing’s worn by any injured patient and removed in the hospital or dispensary shall be preserved carefully. They shall be packed after drying, if wet blood stains are present. Similarly, gastric-lavage, bullets pellets etc. taken out of the body of a patient must also be preserved properly in sealed containers. They shall also be labeled properly and then preserved in safe custody with an official deputed by the hospital authorities for this purpose.

b)    All articles shall only be handed over to police after obtaining proper applications and receipts.

  1. X-ray in Medico-legal cases

            In cases there is need for an Emergency or Routine X-ray so as to ascertain or confirm certain findings, doctor must get X-ray of the appropriate part either in his presence or making it sure that proper identified person has been X-rayed. Proper identification number of card etc. must be got mentioned in X-ray films so that there is no mix up of cases. It is important that while writing the opinion of X-ray, its number be given so that it could be subsequently identified in the court.


  1. Disposal of patients who on examination are found already dead on arrival in the casualty (Brought in dead)

a)    All cases brought dead must be registered as medico-legal in the casualty, along with all possible details about the deceased obtained from the persons accompanying. Addresses of persons bringing such a dead individual must always be noted.

b)    In all such cases registered as medico-legal information to police be sent.

c)    While preparing casualty card, it must be mentioned that the deceased was ‘brought dead’. Also, mention the date and time when the deceased was brought to casualty.

d)    All such bodies should not be handed over to the relatives, but sent to mortuary. They should only be handed over to appropriate police authorities.

  1. Disposal of bodies in medico-legal cases dying in Casualty/Wards

1.    All dead bodies of medico-legal cases that expire in a casualty/ward should be sent to the mortuary of the hospital for onward handing over to police.

2.    All dead bodies of medico-legal cases be handed over to a police officer not less than the rank of A.S.I for inquest

3.    In no case such bodies be handed over to relatives directly. However, relatives must be informed accordingly.

4.    In case relatives are not present, Duty officer should be informed and intimation be sent to the relatives as per procedure prescribed in the hospital Order No 3557.

5.    Death-forms will be filled up and one copy shall be handed over to the police another sent to Municipal Corporation/N.D.M.C and one copy kept as record with the hospital.

6.    A “death summary’ in duplicate should be prepared by the Medical Officer attending such cases and one copy should be handed over to the police officer who receives the dead body of the deceased and IInd copy attached to the case records.

  1. Miscellaneous:

1)    Proper written consent be taken while doing any operation or investigation etc. on such patients.

2)    ‘Dying Declaration’ be recorded (if not recorded) in al serious cases.

3)    Intimation to relations about the condition of the patient be given, especially if he/she turns serious. In case relatives are not there, written intimation be sent at the address of patient available in case sheet.

4)    All case sheets of medico-legal cases be kept under proper custody o as to avoid tampering. After the patient is discharged/dead case sheets be sent to record section for safe custody after completion.

5)    In each and every medico-legal case who is going to be discharged, an information regarding the day of discharge be given to police at least 24 hours before the discharge period.

6)    Immediate information be sent to police, if a medico-legal case (patient) leaves or absconds hospital against medical advise (L.A.M.A)

7)    All MLC cases should be labeled in Rubber Stamp as MLC.

8)    In emergency situations consent is implied if the patient is unconscious. The consent is also implied in a emergency operation where unexpected mutilation amputation of limb, for example has to be carried out to save the life of the patient. However, the physician should remember that if the patient expressly refuses or forbids about something, no question of implied consent can ever arise.

GUIDELINES FOR PREPARATION OF POST-MORTEM REPORT

The Medical Officer while conducting the medical examination on the dead body will fill the post mortem report form as given in Enclosure II. Special care must be taken to ensure that each column is filled properly in clear handwriting with a ball pen with carbon paper under the form so as to get office copy for record for future use. Special attention may be given to the following aspects:

(1)  To properly record the date and hour of receipt of inquest paper, date and hour of starting autopsy, name of the person who brought the body and the name of the person who identified the body and the probable time of death.

(2)  While describing injuries, suggestions given in Appendix II “Guidelines on Medico-legal work”. Section6 on preparation of medico-legal injury report may be followed and should clearly indicate whether injuries are ant-mortem/post-mortem with the reasons thereof. Also, indicate whether the injuries are sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death and the nature of the weapon used for causing each of the injury.

(3)  In case of death by burn injuries, state degree of burn extent and details of burns including cause of burn injuries.

(4)  In case of death caused by poison, must state whether the viscera is preserved and sealed.

(5)  While describing the contents in the stomach, special mention must be made of the food whether digested or semi-digested. If possible, indicate the food material present and smell, if any.

(6)  While describing the clothing’s of the deceased one must indicate whether they were blood stained or any other noticeable mark like charring tattooing scorching or blackening and also indicate whether the clothes have been taken possession of and sent to the police and whether these were sealed.

(7)  Mention must be made of any other special peculiar of the case, if noticed.

(8)  Post-mortem report must be signed, seal be affixed and certified that it is correct.

DYING DECLARATION:

The dying declaration is defined as “A statement written or verbal, made by a person who has since dying, as to the cause of his condition or as to any circumstances of the transaction or event which resulted in his death”, and is admissible as evidence in case in which the cause of that person’s death is the subject of enquiry.  In case a person who has sustained the serious injuries and is in danger of life or likely to succumb, the medical officer should inform the Magistrate so that the dying declaration of the person is recorded. In case it is expected that this person will die before the arrival of Magistrate, the medical attendant can record the Dying Declaration himself.

            It is better to take the written statement of the person making declaration otherwise it should be recorded in the identical words of the person. No suggestion should be made to the person and no attempt should be made to seek information by asking leading questions. The contents of the declaration should be read over to the dying individual and if possible it should be signed by the declaration. Further, It should be attested by the write and signed by the witnesses present. After recording the declaration, it should be forwarded to the Police or to the Magistrate under who is conducting the inquiry of the case.

            Prior to the recording of Dying declaration, the attending doctor is required to issue a certificate of the “Fitness of mind” to give dying declaration. The Medical Officer should be careful while issuing such a certificate as he will be summoned to the court of law.

OBSESSION TO PROVE HOMICIDE

At times, mostly the parents or close family member get obsessed to the idea commonly in situations of suicide that their loved one has been murdered instead of committing suicide. They may move from one investigating agency to another or from court to court, from one expert to other or asking for constitution of medical boards. They even try to influence the board members or investigating agencies to give an opinion in favor of homicide. If they do not get opinion of their liking, some of them hardly hesitate to make complaints against the investigating agencies or the experts who have given   opinion. This is a way of expression to deny the reality or to prove that the deceased has not committed suicide because suicide brings a sense of guilt to the person and family even a social stigma. Sometimes, it may be a psychological cover for their own inadequacies or any kind of guilt complex in the relationship with the deceased. It is very hard to convenience these people of the real situation. Sometimes, there is feeling of revenge or settling the scores with the people against whom they may have grudges and therefore may attempt to implicate them.

MASS HYSTERIA

In India, the mass hysteria having a uniformly suspicious thinking on the issue which has been given wide publicity by the media occurs at times. The event becomes a topic of general gossip with the people. Rumors and imaginations travel fast in the community. Criticism of the investigating agencies and of the experts even doubting their integrity and capability becomes the talk of the public. Media further accentuates the situation by floating various theories and hypothetical opinions of the experts. Even at times, eminent experts in the field get involved in the debate. All this does not have any effect except hampering the investigation and unnecessary disheartening of the experts involved in the investigation.

PSEUDO EXPERTS

There is no dearth of experts who may not have handled a single case but comes out with hypothesis or opinions mostly to the media in the cases which are given wide publicity by the media. They may float many unrealistic theories. Even they may comment on the opinion of the experts involved in the investigations. The objective of such experts is to get popularity.

JUNK PUBLICATIONS

All articles published in all journals are not necessarily scientifically valid. This is done to increase the number of publications for the purpose of their promotions and improve credentials. All types of articles appear in journals published by individuals, private publishing houses or unpopular Societies without any peer review or authenticity. The authors has an experience of many such articles being cited to support a particular opinion but were found rationally incorrect.

SOME RELATED FACTS

The evidence is recorded in a particular sequence (Section 138 of IEA) that is:

a)    Examination-in-chief

b)    Cross examination

c)    Re-examination

d)    Question by Judge

a)    Examination-in-Chief-The examination-in-chief is conducted by the counsel who has summoned the witness. Objective of this examination is to place all the relevant and significant facts of the case. In case of expert evidence, his emphasis is on  the proper interpretation of facts and opinion given by the expert in the medico-legal report/document. In case of State versus accused cases, this examination is carried out by the public prosecutor. Leading questions are not allowed in this examination. The leading questions are those wherein answer is suggested in the question itself.

b)    Cross Examination- The cross examination is conducted by the opposite counsel. Objective of this examination is to bring forward any fact or opinion that may go in favor of his client. He may attempt to weaken the witness by asking questions which may show contradictions inaccuracies and conflict of opinion. He may also cite literature to prove that the opinion is ill founded .The leading questions are allowed. The witness cannot refuse to answer the questions. In case, he finds it objectionable, he can address the Judge and wait for the directions. Questions asked by the defense counsel can be objected by the public prosecutor. In such situation, medical officer should stop and wait for the instructions from the court. If court says” objection over ruled” he should answer the question. If court says, “Objection sustained” he need not   answer the question. There is no time limit. The Examination may last for days together.

c)    Re-examination- After cross examination if the counsel who has summoned feels that certain obscure  points require clarification, he may re-examine the witness but he cannot raise any new issue during re-examination without the permission of Judge and opposite counsel. In case, new issue is raised, the opposite counsel has right to cross examine again on that issue.

d)    Question by Judges- The judge may ask questions at any stage but ordinarily it is observed that they ask some questions after the examination-in-chief and cross-examination is over to clear certain doubts.

            After the evidence is recorded, the recorded evidence either typed or computer print at times written in hand is provided to the witness. The Medical officer should go through the evidence and after making necessary corrections sign at the end. He should not leave  without taking permission from the court.

EVIDENCE

In the Indian Evidence Act 1872, Indian Evidence (amendment) Act 2003 and Code of Criminal Procedure 1973 deal with the issues of evidence.

Evidence is the statements that are made before the court by the witness regarding to the matters or fact under enquiry. These statements are called oral evidence while the documents produced for the inspection of the court are called documentary evidence (IEA Section 3). Thus, the evidence could be either an oral evidence or documentary evidence.

CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCES

  1. Direct Evidence-The direct evidence could be oral or documentary. It relates to the fact which is directly seen, heard or perceived by the witness and deposed in the court as oral evidence. Direct Documentary evidence is when facts relating a document are verified by the witness.

  2.  Indirect or circumstantial EvidenceIt means when the circumstances interferential prove the occurrence of a principal fact eg. X has shot Y in a room. Z saw the X with a fire arm weapon outside the room a minute before the fire in the room. The Z has not seen X firing but his observation circumstantially relates to the principal act of firing the Y.

  3. Hearsay Evidence-It means the information, knowledge, experience gathered from others. The hearsay evidence is not of much value in the court of law.

  4. Prima fasciae Evidence- It is evidence that is considered as a proof on its face value regarding the fact.

  5. Material Evidence-It is evidence in connection with the principal fact having substantial and relevant bearing on the decision making by a material object. While recording of oral evidence if it refers to the existence of any material thing, the court may ask for its inspection eg. Clothing’s, weapon of offence, part of poison or any other exhibits.

  6. Original Evidence- It is an independent probative force of its own or is relevant proof by itself.

  7. Derivative Evidence- It is a probative force from some other source or becomes relevant proof through its relation to certain other facts.

  8. Relevant Evidence-It isi evidence that has a direct bearing upon the fact in issues in a case.

  9. Conclusive Evidence-It is evidence that by itself proves the fact in issue in a case, excluding all other evidence.

RECORDING OF EVIDENCE IN COURT OF LAW

  1. Oral Evidence:  In a court of law, all facts, except the contents of documents or electronic records may be proved by oral evidence (I.E.A Sec.59). The Medical man is usually summoned to the court of law to give the oral evidence regarding the documents /opinion prepared by him. The oral evidence is of more significance as it gives an opportunity to defense counsel to cross examination to clarify the facts.   The evidence is recorded in a definite manner as described earlier that is examination-in-chief, cross -examination and re-examination .During evidence any reference made to the material thing, court may instruct to produce the same eg. Weapon, clothing’s or any other exhibits for identification and opinion.

            Therefore, any material/exhibit examined by an expert should be properly sealed and signed or some identification marks put on the exhibit where ever needed along with dimensions recorded so that the exhibit examined   is easily identified in the court at the time of deposing the evidence. The special precautions should be taken to maintain the chain of custody, right from the preservation till it is finally produced before the court of law. This is very important and should be invariably followed.

            While deposing, the witness is permitted to refresh his memory. According to section 159 (I.E.A) “A witness may, while under examination, refresh his memory by referring to any writing made by himself ………………..” He can even refresh his memory by reference to any other document with the permission of court. The medical officer can cite the publications or the opinions of the experts expressed in any treatise or professional treatises. A medical officer though usually appears on behalf of the public prosecutor (State) but he is a witness of Science and therefore, he should express his opinion based on the scientific facts irrespective whether it is supporting the prosecution or defense.  

            A mute or deaf person may give evidence by signs, writing or through an interpreter.

In certain circumstances, the evidence may be admissible without the presence of witness, such as following;

a)    Dying declaration (Section 32 and 157 IEA).

b)    Expert opinion expressed in a book or treatise, when author is dead or cannot be found (Sec.60 IEA).

c)    Evidence of Medical officer recorded in a lower court but Medical officer can be summoned by higher court if any deficiency is observed or needs further explanation (Section 291 Cr PC).

d)    Evidence recorded in earlier judicial proceeding when the witness is dead or is not found or incapable of giving evidence or undue delay or unreasonable expenses to call such witness (Sec 33 IEA and Sec. 291 Cr.P.C).

e)    Evidence of Mint officers or Indian Security press (Section 292 Cr.P.C).

f)     Report of certain Govt. Scientific experts , (i) Chemical examiner or assistant chemical examiner (ii) Chief inspector of explosives (iii) Director Finger Print Bureau (iv) Director’s  Central Forensic Science Laboratories or State Forensic Science Laboratory, (v) Director of Haffkine Institute , Mumbai (vi) Serologist to the government (Sec. 293(1) Cr.P.C) (v) Public records eg birth and death certificate etc. (Sec. 74, 76, 78 and 35 of IEA), (vi) Hospital records  regarding routine entries.

      However, in practice Forensic science experts of Central Forensic Science Laboratories and Forensic Science Laboratory are quite frequently summoned to the court of law which is within the rights of the court, prosecution and defense counsel.

  1. Documentary Evidence:  Various types of medico-legal documents are issued by a medical expert which are submitted to the courts of law.  The medical officer is summoned to prove the contents of the documents either by primary or by secondary evidence

a.    Primary Documentary Evidence: Document is produced itself for the inspection by the court (IEA Sec.62)

b.    Secondary Documentary Evidence: When certified copies of an original document made in a mechanical process or copies made from or compared with the original or oral accounts of the contents of the documents by some person who has himself seen it (IEA Sec 63). The usual medical documents produced may be as under:

a)    Medical certificates

b)    Medical Legal records

c)    Deposition of medical witness

d)    Dying declaration

e)    Expert opinion

f)     Previously recorded evidence

MEDICAL CERTIFICATES:

a) Certificate of illness. It should mention duration of illness, name and address of the doctor, registration number of doctor, left thumb impression of the patient along with the signature.

B) Certificate of insanity- to be issued on a prescribed format by a competent authority.

C) Death certificate- is to be issued by a registered medical practitioner looking after the patient at the time of his last illness on a prescribed form , not to be issued if the cause of death is not clear or suspects foul play or he has not seen the patient at least once in last fortnight before death.

D) Certificate of Age and Sex-to be issued after complete laid procedure and examination (Physical, Dental, Radiological examination, Impression of left thumb, signature of the patient to be recorded). Better to be issued in a prescribed format.

E) Disability certificate-to be issued after thorough and complete examination as per laid procedure in a proper format.

It is advisable; all these certificates should be issued in proper respective formats and following the laid procedures by the State/Institution/Organization. Special care should be taken regarding the identity of an individual to whom the certificate is being issued.

MEDICO-LEGAL REPORTS:

A medico-legal report comprises of three parts:

a)    Preamble which contains the date, time place of examination, name of the person, the person who brought the   case and the person who identified.

b)    Findings/observations-this includes description of injuries and description of other examination/observation made on the patient.

c)    Opinion-In this part based on the findings and observations, the medical officer will opine regarding the nature of injuries, that is simple or grievous, the nature of weapon and any other information that may help the investigations.

These reports are prepared in duplicate, a copy of which is handed over to the investigating Officer and one copy is retained for the purpose of record and for future reference.

T D DOGRA
THIS WAS PREPARED FOR DIRECTOR GENERAL OF HEALTH SERVICES DELHI,FOR A SUB-COMMITTEE CONSTITUTED BY DIRECTOR GENERAL OF HEALTH SERVICES,DELHI ADMINISTRATION SARASWATI BHAWAN CONAUGHT PLACE DELHI, IN 1982 BY PROFESSOR T D DOGRA THAN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR BASED ON INCLUDING DOCUMENTS PROVIDED BY PROF. BISHNU KUMAR HOD MAULANA AZAD MEDICAL COLLEGE DELHI. LATER SUBMITTED TO AIIMS AND GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

  Prof. T D Dogra HOD Forensic Medicine and 
  Dr. R K Sarma, MHA, Deputy Medical  Superintendent,
  AIIMS, New Delhi 110029.

 

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