Biologic Basis of Tooth MovementBiologic Basis of Tooth MovementNULL

Biologic Basis of Tooth Movement

I, Dr. Seema Grover, Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences; SGT University Gave presentation on “Biological Basis of Orthodontic Movement” on 23th April 2018.
Lecture focused on Role of Periodontal Ligament in Orthodontic tooth movement. Transeptal fibres of periodontal ligament play a major role in causing tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. Physiologic Tooth movement was explained in detail which included concepts of Tooth eruption, migration /drifting of teeth in mesial and occlusal direction and tooth movement during mastication.
Theories of Tooth movement were discussed in detail. There are four theories of Tooth movement; Pressure Tension theory, Bone bending & Piezoelectric theory and Fluid Dynamic or Blood flow theory. Following that Histology of Tooth Movement was done in detail covering; Changes following Mild force application and Changes following Extreme forces application on Pressure and Tension side respectively.
With Mild force application, on pressure side; Periodontal ligament gets compressed to 1/3rd of its original length, increased vasculrity, mobilization of fibroblasts and osteoclasts causing bone resorption adjacent to periodontal ligament known as frontal resorption. On tension side; Periodontal ligament gets stretched and increase in width, bony trabeculae get aligned parallel to tooth movement and ostoeblasts lay down osteoid which forms woven bone later.
With Extreme force application; Periodontal ligament gets obliterated and gets devoid of its nutritional supply leading to regressive changes known as hyalinization. Bone resorption occurs above, below and behind the periodontal ligament known as Undermining resorption. On Tension Side; periodontal ligament gets overstretched leading to tearing of blood vessels and ischemia. Pain and hyperemia of gingival is observed and loosening of tooth within socket due to overactive osteoclasts.
In last, lecture was concluded by stressing on importance of Optimum orthodontic force for maximum tooth movement in minimum time and least patient discomfort which is 20-26gm/cm2 equal to human blood capillary pressure. Finally Light continous forces are best advised in orthodontics for an ideal tooth movement in patients.

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